), Brown, J. Because of the popularization of the war-like Plains tribes through Hollywood and the proliferation of wars and conflict between these tribes the United States government until 1924, the Plains tribes became emblematic of Native America as a whole (Krystal, 2012). Possibly the most important use of music to the Cherokee people is their use of healing chants. Cherokee.org.

These elements combine to create the relaxed and open sound indicative of the Cherokee people as singing in comfortably low ranges, and using aspirated attacks allows their voice to glide through pitches naturally rather than creating tension and stress through contorting the sound (Levine, 1998, p. 5; Nettl et. Music As Culture. After the Trail of Tears and the relocation of those belonging to the Cherokee Nation the game lost its ritual and spiritual meaning for both the Nation and the Eastern Band of Cherokee, but it is still played throughout the Nation and the Eastern Band against other tribes. In 1838, President Andrew Jackson ordered the removal of all Cherokee and other tribes from their native lands to be relocated to the Oklahoma Territories. (Recorded by Walker Calhoun). For more information, visit MU’s Nondiscrimination Policy or the Office for Civil Rights & Title IX. These pairs are peace/war, passive/active, old/young, internal/external, plants/animals, tame(cultivated)/wild, and male/female and are associated as white/red (Fogelson, 1971, p. 329). This paper combines two of his passions,  music, and his heritage as a citizen of the Cherokee Nation. The Cherokee Ballgame Cycle: An Ethnographer’s View. This was an extremely trying, difficult time for the Nation bringing much sadness and despair and, as McLoughlin (1994) writes in his essays, “Christianity is a religion of hope, of miracles, of divine support for the weak and oppressed. (Ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. The Stomp Dance is a religious event of incredible importance to the Cherokee Nation, so much so that information is hard to come by as the government of the Cherokee Nation does not wish for the dance to be recorded, nor its meaning analyzed and published (Cushman, E. & Ghosh, S, 2012.). Such strict adherence to the memorized format stems the Cherokee belief that any deviance from the formula would result in disaster striking the community (Herndorn, 1987, p. 464). To begin, North American Native Tribes can be placed into groups based on geography and shared characteristics; these groups are the Artic, Northwest Coast, Plateau Basin, Southwest, Plains, and Eastern Woodland tribes (McAllester, 1980, p. 308). Artifacts like these show us the importance of Christian hymns to Cherokee life, though often in their purest, least acculturated forms. Through carefully studying the music individually, and then presenting it to students in an informative manner, music educators can alleviate the problem Kelly talks about in his book of a disconnect between modern America, the cultural identity Native America through Pan-Indianism, and the knowledge of the traditions and practices of one’s specific tribal heritage. Retrieved from http://cherokee.org/AboutTheNation/FrequentlyAskedQuestions.aspx. As evidenced, there are many overlapping characteristics between Cherokee traditional singing and Southern style powwow singing, which aided in the smooth adaptation of the practice into Cherokee society.

The ceremony begins with an all-night dance to transform the players from beings of White to people of Red (Herndon 1971, p. 343). Known as the Trail of Tears, this move led to the split of the Cherokee Nation as most traveled westward while some managed to stay hidden and remain in the east. Appalachian Center Collection, Berea College Southern Appalachian Archives. When discussing the Cherokee as a whole, I will be referring to the unified tribe as it existed in its ancestral lands of Appalachia rather than their present day location in Oklahoma and North Carolina. (1997). If successful, the chant is then integrated into the repertoire; however, individuals do not receive credit for “creating” a new chant, rather, it is said that they have “rediscovered the proper way to deal with a particular problem” (Herndorn 465).

Unlike the dance music of the Cherokee, the chants are extremely controlled in form, text, and melodic contour. Native American Culture: The Native American Sourcebook. The scale use also changes with this genre; no longer do the Cherokee use the pentatonic scale that dominates the rest of their music. A good measure for authenticity is taking what the tribe itself considers as “traditional”. As noted earlier, these songs have an overall downward contour, are antiphonal in nature, and primarily consist of vocables (Herndon, 1971, p. 343). 106-132, Museum of the Cherokee Indian. The American Anthropologist, 3(2), pp.

Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska. Recorded April 11, 2015. This can be compared again to Catholicism where vocables that have no actual definition such as Alleluia but hold religious significance and meaning within the context of the ritual.

For example, Native American religious freedoms, practices, and holy lands were not lawfully being protected until the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 and are often still unprotected as the court cases over disputed sacred land continue to favor corporate and government development of these lands as shown in the 1988 Supreme Court Case Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery and the recent events regarding the Standing Rock Reservation. Beginning Cherokee. Artifacts is sponsored by The Campus Writing Program. The Cherokee Ball Play. These songs were so powerful to the people of the Cherokee Nation that Amazing Grace has since been seen as the unofficial national anthem of the Cherokee people (Holmes, R, Smith, B., 1977, p. 12), similar to how Lift Up Your Voices is considered the African American national anthem. Specific to certain dances, the longer the song went on the leader began to improvise longer and more elaborate melodies, another defining characteristic of this musical style (Keilor, 2013, p. 127; McAllester, 1980, p. 309). With careful attendance, we can promote a unified Native identity while keeping the integrity of individual tribal cultures further allowing Natives to connect with their ancestry as is increasingly difficult in modern times (Kelly, 2015).

al., 2013). Music educators must do a better job of helping Natives, like myself, who were raised away from the cultural center in an attempt to escape the poverty found on tribal lands, connect to their culture in a meaningful way.

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